There are two types of textures: Monody and Polyphony. Monody is a single melody and all the musicians play the same notes. Polyphony consists of several simultaneous melodies sounding at the same time.
Texture is at the root of the musical groups configurations, as these ensembles have various instruments with a particular function, each with a distinctive voice, an specific melody.
A melody is a series of notes. Harmonic accompaniment is the sound landscape of a particular time in a Musical work.
Let make a simile to understand this better. Consider that if Music is a drawing on a sheet of paper, we can see the melody as a horizontal line of one dimension and the accompaniment would be all color in two dimensions surrounding the melodic line. The line is the Monodic melody and the colors surrounding it are the polyphonic melodies.
A polyphonic instrument is capable of producing several notes simultaneously. A melodic instrument, however, is only capable of producing one at a time.
A chord is a harmony where at the same time (simultaneously) we can hear notes of different pitch. In a Music sheet it is written in vertical and corresponds to the harmonic accompaniment. Similarly, the melody is written as consecutive horizontal notes.
A chord can also be 'broken'. This is achieved when a chord, for example, consisting of five notes, is played in two parts (first four, then one). But it still have the feeling of unity.
Using the notes of the C major scale as a starting point, we can create seven basic chords that can be shuffled to compose melodies and basic chord progressions within the major key. Pay attention to Hanon number 24.
This harmonic complex has three major chords, three minor chords and a semi-diminished chord.
Major chords can be found in grades I, IV and V. The minor chords in grades II, III and VI. The semi-diminished chord is in grade VII.
The previous day, we discussed how chords come out from the basic Major scale. Therefore, chords can be constructed using any imaginable scale, including those of the modalities.
That's why we have special chords for Blues, Jazz, Flamenco, Bossa Nova and so on.
And they are usually distinguished by the extentions added to the basic Tetrad.
Let us study some basic chord progressions. One of the easiest has only two chords: I-V-V-I (Tonic-Dominant-Dominant-Tonic). It is fair easy to see that it has a symmetric structure and it appears in a lot of compositions, from Folk Music to Classical Music.
Another common structure of chord progression is the one that uses the I-IV-V-I (Tonic-Subdominants-Dominant-Tonic) and varies it in several ways. It is almost the same as the symmetric structures we have seen but adds a little colour by using the intermediate area of Sudominant. A good example of this is the Blues Bar.
More variations: I-vi-IV-V-I (Tonic-Submediant-Subdominant-Dominant-Tonic). Again, we are adding more chords to the Symmetric version. This time, instead of the second chord (Dominant), we have Submediant plus Subdominant chords. This progressions are so common that there is this very popular video that shows how it is intensively used and abused in Popular Music (I - V - vi - IV).
As you can see, there are a lot of possibilities, but we are going to finish this unit studying an intervalic progression, very common in the Baroque Era: vi-ii-V-I-IV-vii-III7-iv.
Images taken from Hanon Online, Andy's Words and Pictures, 123rf, Wikipedia (1, 2, 3), imgarcade, Hackea el Aula, O'Reilly, David Darling, David Wallace, Designinfographics, Metro, Tywi, Daily Mail, SoYouWanna, Steph Aaronson, Discard Studies, South by Sunset, Flickr, Kotaku, GagDonkey, QuieroDibujos, Rgbstock, Flute-a-bec, Bivem, En clave de música, IES Marqués de Santillana, Image and Art, Arte Creativo Total, Discapnet, Anonadatos, Ludoforum, Invited Life, Wikipedia, SmartArt Microsoft Office: Word 2007, blogtatuajes, forwallpaper, Earsinus,.Schollen Collection, Ancient Greek notation, Music of Yesterday, Wikipedia, Wikipedia, Smithsonian, Choirly, Wikipedia, OKNation, Medi-Music, Chmtl, All Music Sheet, White Hot, Moc, Mercado Libre, Learning Encounters, As Seen On The Internet, Valdosta, Lien Bui, Cosas sencillas, David Maestre, Britishkingdom's Blog, Sala de música, Unicentro, Coro Monumental de Guadalajara, La música es bella, Mediateca de EducaMadrid, RubyCliff, Christ Hind, Wikipedia, Music Zone,Guitar Forums, Euskomedia, Sengpielaudio, Redlands College, Laura Intravia, Memorising Music, Fluttery Records, Tickets Move Mag, Music Reading Savant, Learn Guitar for Free, Wiki 2, saxophone lessons,NEC, CEC, Cerl, Violin from scratch, Danza Edinba, Tirine, UTH, Greenwich Symphony, Stepher's Happening, Earth Cupcake, My Music Theory, Short and Sweet Music, Charanga, DANSR, ONU, LOC, Wind Loft, Top Rated Trumpets, Trevor Jones, Quakertown Cyberacademy, Cleveland, Musixcool, Cooper MSO, Mathematic SE, Philarmonia, Scott Brothers Duo, Potomac Academy, Devieant Art, Pulse Music, Slash's Paradise, Daily Mail, Ableton, Fremeaux, Trumpet Guild, Tommy Igoe, George Manstan, Tablao Cordobés, Zastavki, MyBioMedArt, Independent, Voer, Británnica Kids, Guardian, Flickr, Ultimate Classic Rock, Houston Symphony, Britannica, Virtual Sheet Music, Music Clear Center, imgkid, Lotus Music, Music Workshop, Kennedy Violins, Seattle String Studio, Net Places, Piano Guide, Personal Singing Guide, Quadibloc, Basic Music Theory, EveryNote, Piano play it, Paintings, Featurepics, Wikipedia, Cyberfret, Guitar Master Class, Piano Lessons Central,