At the beginning of the 19th Century, Romanticism was the main artistic movment and Music happens to be the 'Cinderella' of the arts (meaning that Music was taken seriously almost for the first time and incorporated to the fine arts) and turned to be considered the quintessential art by philosophers and poets of that time.
This is a formal revolution in which composers are separated from the structural rigidity of previous compositions and express their own ways of seeing the construction of the works.
Texture becomes very complex and the orchestra grows in number of performers and in the variety of instruments.
They continue composing symphonies and piano works, but the composers start a new interest in the Lied, the song written in German and in opera with the works of Wagner and Verdi.
In Spain we have the revitalization and reinvention of the Zarzuela.
Nationalist Schools (a Music movement in the 19th Century) incorporate the popular roots to the 'language' of Music.
They start taking traditional themes to the symphony hall and end up creating free forms with a folkloric and popular feeling to their Music, having reminiscences of folkloric themes.
Not only these composers write music based on their countries, but they also try to imitate the Music of other countries, in a process called 'orientalization'.
The century ends with a collide between the composers that continue the tradition of German Wagnerian music those that try new paths for their Music.
Some new melodies and lyrics were used in political revolts with a strong national component such as the Music of Verdi during the process of independence of Italy.
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