Module 6. Editing Visual Productions


Evaluation Criteria:

To edit visual pieces applying techniques of creation of dynamic sequences of graphics and still images and audiovisual montage, adjusting them to musical pieces.

Evaluative learning standards:

1.1. Being able to relate the technical specifications and operational qualities of the post-production equipment with the different assembly and editing methodologies in film, video and television projects.

1.2. Being able to configure the editing project of graphics and still images or of non-linear editing, considering the format adapted to the original material and the final diffusion that is intended in the project.

1.3. Being able to edit the video pieces, photographs, graphics, signs and sound elements in the timeline of the editing program, making transitions between the planes, elaborating subtitles, harmonizing the tone and synchronizing the duration of the image with the audio .

1.4. Being able to export the visual editing piece to a file with the necessary format for later reproduction.

1.5. Being able to justify the suitability of linear editing or non-linear editing in various assembly and post-production projects.

Characteristics of video formats in editing projects. Size of pixel images. Aspect ratio, compression, audio.

The edition consists of assembling all those fragments that we have shot in a single movie. As we have already seen, we can splice these fragments through curtains or directly and can modify the order as many times as we want. There is a distinction between editing (which is what we have with computing) and editing, which is what was done with celluloid films, literally cutting and pasting. Nowadays, we have to attend to the 4K and 8K formats for the cinema. In the same way, we must attend to the resolution of the monitors (and for printing, the pixels per inch). Among the possibilities we have - for monitors - 832x624 and 640x480 for 15 '' and 640x480 and 1024x768 for 20 ''. With regard to the aspect ratio, remember that we are talking about 4: 3 and 16: 9, for example, for the size of the image and its proportions, for image compression we are talking about formats and codecs and for the audio is the use of envelopes and ratios type 2: 1, 5: 1 or 8: 1 that reduce the gain of certain sound peaks getting a homogeneous and less heavy auditory signal.

Techniques of dynamic sequencing of still images, vector graphics and other elements: frame to frame, stopmotion, interpolation.

The commented in this epigraph we usually call it animation step by step. When we have still images, we can edit them as if they were static videos, give them a certain time to see them. This surely you have done many times with photo videos. With vector graphics the same happens, changing the size without loss of quality. Once we are in animation proper, what is done is to take advantage of the basic conditions of cinema. A number of photographs issued at a rate that exceeds twelve per second will create movement. The first animators realized this possibility and photographed an action with static movement frame by frame. With drawings, materials and objects that moved, with puppets and dolls that have a supporting structure and with the interpolation of different elements in disparate orders, the sensation of animation of the inert was created.

Timeline edition techniques of times: insertion, overlay and extraction editions.

Video editors are usually all very similar. They even work just like audio sequencers. On the left we have a column with lots of commands and then an important part of the screen is occupied with virtual "tracks" in which to place the photos, videos, effects, audios, transitions, etc. We locate ourselves on a track and select what we want to insert. It usually opens a menu to find the file that we want to incorporate into the project and we already have it. In the track we can put the file at a certain moment. The same is done with any other file that we want to incorporate. With a mounted file, (for example a video) we want to superimpose another file (for example a photo to see on the side as a watermark). To do this, we will use another track, place the image in the specific point and then select an effect to appear in a corner. And finally, the extraction, when we take out a fragment of a track to use it without having to have the full video.

Export of edited pieces to media and diffusion files: determination of the technical properties of the material to be exported according to its destination. Technical and operational benefits of digital video recorders.

As soon as we have the project, we have to export it to a file compatible with the reproduction. Do not forget that when you record in a video editor you do not have a movie, but a project. Actually it is a file that says what is in every second and serves only for our editor. Therefore, if we want to have a movie to watch, an audiovisual file, we export it in one of the files we have seen in the fourth block. For example AVI for quality films and MP4 to upload to the Internet. We must take into account if that file will be able to be incorporated to a hard disk, to a DVD or to a Blu Ray. In the section the magnetoscopes are mentioned, but I doubt very much that you have to work with them ever again. The only thing you should know is that the first copy, the highest quality, will be the Master and all the derivatives will be of lower quality. Nothing to do with the digital, in which what is offered to the public can be practically the same as the Master.

Technical and operational benefits of linear video editors.

I have already mentioned that one of the important aspects of a linear video editor is the incorporation of videos, photos and audios into an audiovisual project. We will delve into all the benefits that usually have. To start, in the upper left we have a small viewer to create the movie and to "give the play" to see how the movie is going. in the upper left we have the collection of files, effects and transitions offered by the program. simply by selecting them or by dragging them to the track that we want, we will have them in the project and in the desired place. And finally, in the lower part, we will have the tracks, those horizontal bars in which the files are inserted. What else do we have? Well the truth is that everything else. And it is not little. 90% of the instruction manual is occupied by this "everything else". The difficult thing is to master it. We have the editing tools such as cutting fragments, pasting them, linking them, inserting titles, subtitles, images and other videos. Curve diagrams with different effects, etc. A whole world that is repeated from editor to publisher but always in different places. As you can see, standardizing does not go with the software manufacturers either.

Technical and operational qualities of non-linear editing applications.

The non-linear edition, which is what we have been talking about in this Block, compared to the linear one, allows us to create different versions of the project and move the elements as if they were pieces of a construction game. What does not work for us is eliminated, modified, shortened or lengthened, passed from one point to another, etc. That ability to edit is the success of this way of working. On the one hand, it will depend on the capacity of our hardware and the technical possibilities of the software used, but it will always be better to leave the project as it is once we make a decision. Here we can change our mind many times until we are satisfied. With respect to the qualities of the applications, I refer to the previous section, especially to the "other stuff".

Determining factors in the suitability of linear editing or non-linear editing in audiovisual and cinematographic postproduction projects.

I think that the suitability always opts for the non-linear edition, except in times when it is not possible, as is the case of live broadcasts and nowadays streaming. But as long as there is postproduction and commercial results that do not have to depend on immediacy, regardless of the rush, non-linear editing is the best, if not the only, option possible.

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