Module 8. Technical qualities of sound equipment suitable for radio and audiovisual media.



Evaluation Criteria:

Recognize the technical qualities of sound equipment suitable for radio programs, music recordings, and audiovisual projects, justifying its functional and operational characteristics.

 Assessable learning standards:

1.1. Being able to analyze the process of capturing the human ear and the perception of audible frequencies.

1.2. Being able to identify the most important milestones produced in the historical evolution of the sound record.

1.3. Being able to recognize the sound recording and recording systems used in the production of audiovisual and radio.

1.4. Being able to identify the technical features of the various microphones and accessories needed in audiovisual and entertainment projects.

1.5. Being able to describe the performance of audio lines with different types of cables and connectors, depending on the requirements of microphones, reproductive equipment, computer equipment, and audio recording and recording equipment to be used in audiovisual projects.

1.6. Being able to analyze the technical specifications and operational qualities of various configurations of audio equipment in recordings in music studio, dubbing and sound effects.


General technical performance of microphones for sound capture in radio and audiovisual projects.

There are seven types of microphones for sound capture in different ways, classified according to their polar pattern or response and the ability to bypass sound capture that is not within their range. Let's see what they are and how they can be used in a radio production. The omnidirectional microphone captures all the sound around it, creating a sphere around it in which everything will be collected. Very good to capture the atmosphere, but not to capture a conversation. The bi-directional microphone (in the form of eight) has an advantage over the omnidirectional, still picking up sounds on an axis, which is the possibility of capturing the dialode of two people facing each other, but avoiding everything else. The cardioid microphone, which receives that name from the shape of its polar pattern when remembering a heart, captures the sound of it in front of it, to a lesser extent what it has on the sides, but greatly reducing what it has in front of it. The subcardioid microphone is an intermediate version between the pure and the omnidirectional cardioid, capturing everything, but highlighting the sound it receives directly. The supercardioid microphone has almost no back signal, but does not omit it. The hypercardioid microphone is an even more restrictive version of the supercardioid. And the microphone "shotgun" that is like a hypercardioid, but picking up even less signal from the front, so that the announcer, as he moves, leaves the field. From what we see, a cardioid, in any variant, is the best option for a radio program. The difference will be between one type or another in what we want to pick up behind the microphone, because what is the front part almost does not vary from one model to another.

Technical and operational features of analog and digital audio tables, and amplifiers for radio, and audiovisual.

In the radio we have consoles of an aspect similar to the controls of a television, but as it is expected, only centered in the capture of audio. It's like the mixer of a music producer in a recording studio, but with less need for recording tracks. The input will be analog (of the voice, for example) but today nobody will continue with the analog broadcast, so we are going to focus on the digital one. The console or mixer is usually in a room next to the room where interviews and live are conducted, but it will have a section for Music, including curtains, tunes and other sound or musical effects that are required for the program, including musical pieces in a radio program musical formula. The microphones will pick up the dialogue or monologue of the broadcasters in the soundproof room and will be registered at the table, where volumes will be controlled to have a digital stereo record that can then be broadcast. This last part will leave the radio studio to be controlled by the signal amplifiers that will send the waves (on the one hand) to the broadcast antenna and (on the other) to the Internet network, for digital broadcasts, in a similar way to the television broadcast today.

Line configurations and amplification for scenic spaces and radio and television studios.

We start from microphones and line inputs that collect the audio. From these analog signals we will create with a mixer a signal that the listener can play on his personal devices or listen to it on stage. The analog signal collected will be monitored with special loudspeakers called near-field monitors in order to have a good idea in the studio of how it will sound in a quality equipment at home (or in the vehicle, or in portable players ...) of the listener or on stage. All signals will be collected to the maximum of power and quality to then use the mixer and create relative volumes that produce a balanced mix to offer. From there we will need to take the mix to an amplification system, either for speakers at work for stages or to be transmitted in the case of radio and television.

When we talk about sound for a play (musical or theatrical), the collected sound will work the same, but it will be reproduced by the local speaker system.

Digital audio recording equipment for audiovisual sound and radio and television programs.

The digital recording equipment must collect the auditory signal in an analog way and convert it (encode it) to a digital format. To do this, it will take "samples" of that continuous sound and convert it into data for each second fragment it uses. They can be shots of several thousand cuts per second (28,000, 46,000) and with that data, you will use a hard disk or plate record that we will use for editing.

Once we have that digital audio (which in the case of television, it will also have an image), we will create a signal to emit. Cable or antenna will be used interchangeably, because the players of these signals that have the spectators or listeners will have a signal decoder with which to convert the image and / or the sound back into analog to be reproduced on radio or television.

Technical features of audio recorders on memory card, hard disk or DVD RAM.

The technical performance of the recorders of these sound signals will not depend so much on size (memory capacity when storing data) as on the refresh rate at which we can obtain the signal, the maximum possible speed being the best, equal that we saw in the benefits of SD cards for digital cameras.

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